Valérie Rubinstein von Raffay, Ph.D. is a clinical psychologist and graduate psychoanalyst in private practice in West Los Angeles. She is a faculty member and psychoanalyst at the Los Angeles Institute and Society for Psychoanalytic Studies (LAISPS), and core faculty and supervisor at the Wright Institute, Los Angeles. Dr. von Raffay obtained her undergraduate degree and her M.A. in Psychology from the University of Hamburg, Germany. She received her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the California Graduate School and underwent her training in psychoanalysis at LAISPS. Her training and work in research and as a clinician in Germany and the United States over the past 28 years has provided her with a broad range of experience in inpatient settings and in private practice, working with people form a variety of cultural groups struggling with depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, personality problems, dual diagnosis, and trauma. Dr. von Raffay has given presentations on primitive mental states, intergenerational transmission of trauma, the meaning of suffering, and the relationship between psychoanalysis and literature.